by Dr Nabil W Said, VP Nutrition & Extrusion Technologies, Insta-pro International
First published in Milling and Grain August 2015
Rice is considered one of the world’s most important crops and is a major part of the food culture in Asia, Latin America, Africa and other parts of the world.
Rough rice or paddy (see diagram) consists of the white starchy rice kernel, surrounded by a tightly adhering brown coating of bran and enclosed within a loose outer hull. During the rice milling process, the hull and the bran along with the rice germ are removed mechanically to access and polish the white rice, which is the principle sustenance for the majority of world’s population. Due to the lack of a proper method for rice bran stabilisation in under developed and developing countries, rice bran was underutilised until low cost extruders were introduced in the market.
General steps in the production and utilisation of stabilised rice bran
The separation of the hulls and the bran can be through one, or more stages. If the dehulling took place in one stage where both the hulls and the bran are mixed, the oil content will be low (below 10 percent), an economical separation of the oil is not possible. However, the use of two stage rice mills, in which the bran and the hulls are recovered separately, allows for an economical extraction of oil.
The hulls (about 20 percent of the rice paddy by weight) have no significant nutritional value as they consist mainly of cellulose, lignin and select minerals. On the other hand, rice bran (approximately 5-10 percent of the rice paddy by weight) is rich in protein (14-18 percent) and energy; mainly in the form of the oil it contains (10-20 percent). The percentage of oil in the bran depends on the milling process, the contamination of the bran with hulls and broken kernels and whether the bran is obtained from raw or parboiled paddy.
Besides the protein and energy, stabilised rice bran is an excellent source of vitamins B and E and some antioxidants. It has been used as an ingredient in poultry, pet food, and ruminant animal diets.
Read the full article in Milling and Grain HERE.
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